With ammonia regulations set to be enforced from as early as 2020, beef and dairy farmers, and the wider supply chain, will have to think ahead and consider how the new legislation could impact their businesses.

According to Tom Gill, head of environment at Promar, one of the UK's largest agri-food consultancy groups, the government's proposed regulations to clamp down on ammonia emissions from agriculture by introducing stricter controls on fertiliser use, slurry and manure management and livestock housing, will have left some farmers feeling uncertain about the future sustainability of their businesses.

However, given that the proposed regulations are mostly focused on the enforcement of best practice, which many farmers are already implementing to improve efficiency on-farm, they are in a good position to reap the potential benefits on offer, he said.

Nevertheless, given that manure and slurry applications account for 25% of agricultural ammonia emissions, all slurry and digestate will need to be applied using low-emission spreading equipment by 2027.

“The good news is that many farmers are ahead of the game and are already spreading slurry in such a way to maximise the additional benefits such as increased nitrogen (N) value,” said Tom.

“For example, using a trailing hose can increase the N value by approximately three units per 1000 gallons. This can help save money on feed and bedding as it allows for a quicker return to grazing,” he added, pointing out that beyond best practice, the proposed regulations are likely to mean that significant investment in infrastructure is required on-farm.

“The target date for slurry and digestate stores to be covered is 2027 and given that very few farms currently cover stores, farmers are going to have to make financial investments in order to comply.

“For this reason, I’d recommend that they take time to understand the new legislation, particularly when developing both short and long-term business plans because this will help ensure farms are one step ahead."

Practical steps to reduce ammonia emissions from agriculture

- Wash down animal collection points soon after use

- Ensure that levels of protein in livestock diets are well matched to nutritional needs

- Incorporate manure into soils rapidly after spreading (within at least 12 hours)

- Use low emission techniques for spreading slurry and digestate

- Switch from urea-based fertilisers to ammonium nitrate which has lower emissions

- Inject urea into soil or apply it alongside a urease inhibitor

- Cover slurry and digestate stores and manure heaps or use slurry bags

Proposed government regulations to reduce ammonia emissions from agriculture

1 – 2019: Introduction of nitrogen (or fertiliser) limits

2 – 2025: Extension of environmental permitting to large dairy farms

3 – 2020 onwards: Rules on specific emissions-reducing practices

- Requirement to spread urea-based fertilisers in conjunction with urease inhibitors, unless applied by injection on appropriate land by 2020

- Mandatory design standards for new livestock housing by 2022

- Requirement for all solid manure and digestate spread to bare land to be incorporated rapidly (within 12 hours) by 2022

- Requirement to spread slurries and digestate using low-emission spreading equipment by 2027

- Requirement for all slurry and digestate stores to be covered by 2027